Total expenditures to research and development were 35,398 million kroners in 2013, which amounts to 1.88% of the Icelandic GDP of that year. The total R&D expenditures for the business enterprise sector were 18,548 million, higher education sector was 11.630 million and the government sector and private non-profit sector 5,220 million. Of the total R&D expenditures in the business enterprise sector 67.1% was in services of the business economy, while 24.1% was in manufacturing.